Outlook: Newsletter of the Society of Behavorial Medicine

Spring 2022

New Articles from Annals of Behavioral Medicine and Translational Behavioral Medicine

SBM's two journals, Annals of Behavioral Medicine and Translational Behavioral Medicine: Practice, Policy, Research (TBM), continuously publish online articles, many of which become available before issues are printed. Three recently published Annals and TBM articles are listed below.

SBM members who have paid their 2021 membership dues are able to access the full text of all Annals and TBM online articles via the SBM website by following the steps below.

  1. Go to the Members Only section of the SBM website.
  2. Log in with your username and password.
  3. Click on the Journals link.
  4. Click on the title of the journal which you would like to electronically access.

To check your membership status, or if you are having trouble accessing the journals online, please contact the SBM national office at info@sbm.org or (414) 918-3156.

Annals of Behavioral Medicine

What Predicts the Physical Activity Intention–Behavior Gap? A Systematic Review

 Ryan E Rhodes, PhD, Amy Cox, MA, Reza Sayar, MSc

Intention is theorized as the proximal determinant of behavior in many leading theories and yet intention–behavior discordance is prevalent.

To theme and appraise the variables that have been evaluated as potential moderators of the intention–physical activity (I-PA) relationship using the capability–opportunity–motivation– behavior model as an organizational frame.

Literature searches were concluded in August 2020 using seven common databases. Eligible studies were selected from English language peer-reviewed journals and had to report an empirical test of moderation of I-PA with a third variable. Findings were grouped by the moderator variable for the main analysis, and population sample, study design, type of PA, and study quality were explored in subanalyses.

The search yielded 1,197 hits, which was reduced to 129 independent studies (138 independent samples) of primarily moderate quality after screening for eligibility criteria. Moderators of the I-PA relationship were present among select variables within sociodemographic (employment status) and personality (conscientiousness) categories. Physical capability, and social and environmental opportunity did not show evidence of interacting with I-PA relations, while psychological capability had inconclusive findings. By contrast, key factors underlying reflective (intention stability, intention commitment, low goal conflict, affective attitude, anticipated regret, perceived behavioral control/self-efficacy) and automatic (identity) motivation were moderators of I-PA relations. Findings were generally invariant to study characteristics.

Traditional intention theories may need to better account for key I-PA moderators. Action control theories that include these moderators may identify individuals at risk for not realizing their PA intentions. Prospero # CRD42020142629.


Historical Loss: Implications for Health of American Indians in the Blackfeet Community

 Neha A John-Henderson, PhD, Benjamin Oosterhoff, PhD, Taylor D Kampf, Brad Hall, EdD, Lester R Johnson, III, EdD, Mary Ellen Laframboise, BSW, Melveena Malatare, MA, Emily Salois, MSW, ACSW, Jason R Carter, PhD, Alexandra K Adams, PhD, MD

Historical loss in American Indians (AIs) is believed to contribute to high incidence of mental health disorders, yet less is known about the associations between historical loss and physical health.

To investigate whether frequency of thought about historical loss predicts risk factors for chronic physical health conditions in an AI community.

Using Community Based Participatory research (CBPR) and Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), we measured frequency of thoughts about historical loss in 100 AI adults residing on the Blackfeet reservation. Participants completed a 1-week monitoring period, during which ambulatory blood pressure and daily levels of psychological stress were measured. At the end of the week, we collected a dried blood spot sample for measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP).

In hierarchical linear regression models controlling for demographics and relevant covariates, greater frequency of thoughts about historical loss predicted higher average daily psychological stress (B = .55, t = 6.47, p < .001, ΔR2 = .30) and higher levels of CRP (B = .33, t = 3.93, p < .001, ΔR2 = .10). Using linear mixed modeling with relevant covariates, we found that greater thoughts about historical loss were associated with higher systolic ambulatory blood pressure (B = .32, 95% CI = .22–.42, t = 6.48, p < .001, ΔR2 = .25; Fig. 1c) and greater diastolic ambulatory blood pressure (B = .19, 95% CI = .11–.27, t = 4.73, p < .001, ΔR2 = .19).

The data suggest that frequency of thought about historical loss may contribute to increased subclinical risk for cardiovascular disease in the Blackfeet community.


Daily Motivational Text Messages to Promote Physical Activity in University Students: Results From a Microrandomized Trial

Caroline A Figueroa, MD, PHD, Nina Deliu, MSc, Bibhas Chakraborty, PhD, Arghavan Modiri, Msc, Jing Xu, PhD, Jai Aggarwal, MSc, Joseph Jay Williams, PhD, Courtney Lyles, PhD, Adrian Aguilera, PhD

Low physical activity is an important risk factor for common physical and mental disorders. Physical activity interventions delivered via smartphones can help users maintain and increase physical activity, but outcomes have been mixed.

Here we assessed the effects of sending daily motivational and feedback text messages in a microrandomized clinical trial on changes in physical activity from one day to the next in a student population.

We included 93 participants who used a physical activity app, “DIAMANTE” for a period of 6 weeks. Every day, their phone pedometer passively tracked participants’ steps. They were microrandomized to receive different types of motivational messages, based on a cognitive-behavioral framework, and feedback on their steps. We used generalized estimation equation models to test the effectiveness of feedback and motivational messages on changes in steps from one day to the next.

Sending any versus no text message initially resulted in an increase in daily steps (729 steps, p = .012), but this effect decreased over time. A multivariate analysis evaluating each text message category separately showed that the initial positive effect was driven by the motivational messages though the effect was small and trend-wise significant (717 steps; p = .083), but not the feedback messages (−276 steps, p = .4).

Sending motivational physical activity text messages based on a cognitive-behavioral framework may have a positive effect on increasing steps, but this decreases with time. Further work is needed to examine using personalization and contextualization to improve the efficacy of text-messaging interventions on physical activity outcomes.



Translational Behavioral Medicine

Anti-Black racism and behavioral medicine: confronting the past to envision the future

 Jessica Y Breland, Michael V Stanton

Behavioral medicine research and practice have not traditionally acknowledged the detrimental effects of anti-Black racism (and other forms of systemic oppression) on health, interventions, or research. This commentary describes four ways that behavioral medicine researchers and clinicians can address the past to envision the future of behavioral medicine to promote equitable health for all: 1) name anti-Black racism, 2) ensure interventions address structural inequities, 3) advocate for systemic change, and 4) change expectations for publications.


A multiperspective on the broad dissemination of research findings to past research participants and the community-at-large

Tilicia L Mayo-Gamble, Jennifer Cunningham-Erves, Chioma Kas-Osoka, George W Johnson, Nicole Frazier, Yvonne Joosten

Dissemination of research findings to past research participants and the community-at-large is a critical element to improving health outcomes, yet it is often overlooked by researchers. Few studies have explored how to provide study findings to the community, and no studies have investigated how community members can be involved in this process. This study explored views on the broad dissemination of research findings to community members and the role of the community in the dissemination process. We conducted a comparative analysis from the perspective of researchers, community members, and program officers (POs) from national health research funding agencies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with community members (African American, N = 10; Latino, N = 10), academic researchers (N = 10), and POs (N = 5). Thematic analysis was utilized in which codes and themes were created. One cross-cutting theme was identified, Views on Disseminating Research Findings to Communities. There were three additional themes identified among community members, five among researchers, and four among POs. All groups perceived the value of dissemination to communities as meaningful and ethical. Groups differed in their perceptions of prioritization of dissemination audiences. This study highlighted consensus on the value of broad dissemination to the community-at-large and identified areas of insufficiency in the translational research continuum that could be expanded or improved to ensure targeted groups receive the intended benefits of positive research findings. The long-term benefit of disseminating findings to the community-at-large is increased acceptability of interventions and reduced mistrust in research and researchers.


The preparation phase in the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST): a systematic review and introduction of a reporting checklist

 Ryan R Landoll, Sara E Vargas, Kristen B Samardzic, Madison F Clark, Kate Guastaferro

Multicomponent behavioral interventions developed using the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST) framework offer important advantages over alternative intervention development models by focusing on outcomes within constraints relevant for effective dissemination. MOST consists of three phases: preparation, optimization, and evaluation. The preparation phase is critical to establishing the foundation for the optimization and evaluation phases; thus, detailed reporting is critical to enhancing rigor and reproducibility. A systematic review of published research using the MOST framework was conducted. A structured framework was used to describe and summarize the use of MOST terminology (i.e., preparation phase and optimization objective) and the presentation of preparation work, the conceptual model, and the optimization. Fifty-eight articles were reviewed and the majority focused on either describing the methodology or presenting results of an optimization trial (n = 38, 66%). Although almost all articles identified intervention components (96%), there was considerable variability in the degree to which authors fully described other elements of MOST. In particular, there was less consistency in use of MOST terminology. Reporting on the MOST preparation phase is varied, and there is a need for increased focus on explicit articulation of key design elements and rationale of the preparation phase. The proposed checklist for reporting MOST studies would significantly advance the use of this emerging methodology and improve implementation and dissemination of MOST. Accurate reporting is essential to reproducibility and rigor of scientific trials as it ensures future research fully understands not only the methodology, but the rationale for intervention and optimization decisions.