Outlook: Newsletter of the Society of Behavorial Medicine

Summer 2020

New Articles from Annals of Behavioral Medicine and Translational Behavioral Medicine

SBM's two journals, Annals of Behavioral Medicine and Translational Behavioral Medicine: Practice, Policy, Research (TBM), continuously publish online articles, many of which become available before issues are printed. Three recently published Annals and TBM articles are listed below.

SBM members who have paid their 2020 membership dues are able to access the full text of all Annals and TBM online articles via the SBM website by following the steps below.

  1. Go to the Members Only section of the SBM website.
  2. Log in with your username and password.
  3. Click on the Journals link.
  4. Click on the title of the journal which you would like to electronically access.

To check if you are a current SBM member, or if you are having trouble accessing the journals online, please contact the SBM national office at info@sbm.org or (414) 918-3156.

Annals of Behavioral Medicine

Bidirectional Associations of Momentary Affect with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Working Adults

Jinhyuk Kim, David E Conroy, Joshua M Smyth

Affective experiences and movement-based behaviors form a system that has been shown to influence exercise adherence and mental health outcomes. Little is known about the naturalistic dynamics of the reciprocal associations in this system.
We examined the time intervals at which momentary affect precedes and follows movement-based behaviors in everyday life.
A community sample of working adults (n = 111) completed ecological momentary assessments (EMA) asking about current affect states (sad, happy, tired, and interested) six times a day for three consecutive days. Ratings were used to generate scores for momentary affective arousal and valence. Participants also wore an activity monitor. Total activity counts and sedentary duration in the shorter to longer time intervals (5–120 min) before or after EMA were used as indicators of movement-based behaviors.
Multilevel modeling showed that current affective arousal predicted higher subsequent activity counts in the longer time intervals (120 min) and less subsequent sedentary behavior in the shorter to longer time intervals (5, 60, and 120 min). For the reversed sequence, neither movement-based behavior predicted subsequent momentary arousal or valence. Affective valence was unrelated to movement-based behaviors in either temporal direction.
Some naturally occurring affective experiences (i.e., arousal) might precede, rather than follow, movement-based behaviors. Understanding affective arousal may contribute to improved management of subsequent movement-based behaviors in everyday life.

Resilience and Function in Adults With Chronic Physical Disabilities: A Cross-Lagged Panel Design

Samuel L Battalio, Connie L Tang, Mark P Jensen

Resilience is a psychological construct referring to one’s positive adaptation in response to adversity. Evidence suggests that resilience may contribute to various function domains in adults with chronic physical disabilities.
To test hypothesized temporal associations between resilience and four function domains (anxiety, depression, social role satisfaction, and physical function) in individuals with chronic physical disabilities.
Participants were 1,574 adults with one of four chronic physical disabilities (spinal cord injury, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, or postpolio myelitis syndrome) who were participating in a large, ongoing USA-based longitudinal survey study. Three surveys were mailed on an approximately yearly basis. Resilience was assessed using the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale 10-item (CDRSC-10) and each function domain was assessed using the respective Patient Reported Outcome Measurement System (PROMIS) short-form.
Cross-lagged path models evidenced statistically significant reciprocal relationships between resilience and each function domain except physical function. The standardized lagged coefficients corresponding to resilience predicting social role satisfaction (T1–T2 = 0.09, T2–T3 = 0.09) had similar effect sizes as those corresponding to social role satisfaction predicting resilience (T1–T2 = 0.11, T2–T3 = 0.04), although resilience was a slightly stronger predictor in the second lag. In models assessing psychological function, resilience was a stronger predictor of later psychological function (resilience-to-anxiety, T1–T2 = −0.15, T2–T3 = −0.11; resilience-to-depression, T1–T2 = −0.21, T2–T3 = −0.13) than the inverse (anxiety-to-resilience, T1–T2 = −0.11, T2–T3 = −0.06; depression-to-resilience, T1–T2 = −0.12, T2–T3 = −0.05).
The study findings suggest that resilience is a significant prospective predictor of psychological and social function over time in individuals with chronic physical disabilities.

The Effect of a Priest-Led Intervention on the Choice and Preference of Soda Beverages: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Catholic Parishes

J Jaime Miranda, Alvaro Taype-Rondan, Janina Bazalar-Palacios, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Dan Ariely, PhD

Latin America ranks among the regions with the highest level of intake of sugary beverages in the world. Innovative strategies to reduce the consumption of sugary drinks are necessary.
Evaluate the effect of a one-off priest-led intervention on the choice and preference of soda beverages.
We conducted a pragmatic cluster-randomized trial in Catholic parishes, paired by number of attendees, in Chimbote, Peru between March and June of 2017. The priest-led intervention, a short message about the importance of protecting one’s health, was delivered during the mass. The primary outcome was the proportion of individuals that choose a bottle of soda instead of a bottle of water immediately after the service. Cluster-level estimates were used to compare primary and secondary outcomes between intervention and control groups utilizing nonparametric tests.
Six parishes were allocated to control and six to the intervention group. The proportion of soda selection at baseline was ~60% in the intervention and control groups, and ranged from 56.3% to 63.8% in Week 1, and from 62.7% to 68.2% in Week 3. The proportion of mass attendees choosing water over soda was better in the priest-led intervention group: 8.2% higher at Week 1 (95% confidence interval 1.7%–14.6%, p = .03), and 6.2% higher at 3 weeks after baseline (p = .15).
This study supports the proof-of-concept that a brief priest-led intervention can decrease sugary drink choice.


Translational Behavioral Medicine

A primer in genomics for social and behavioral investigators

Erin Turbitt, Barbara B Biesecker

Genomics is being increasingly utilized in medical research and health care. Countless opportunities exist for social and behavioral scientists to answer novel and important research questions. Evidence that will be produced from such enquiries can help ensure appropriate use of genomic information and realize the potential of genomics to improve patient care and medical outcomes. Here, we provide an accessible overview of different types of genetic and genomic tests and the resulting information produced. There are important nuances that distinguish genetic from genomic tests and different information that each yield. We outline key examples where social and behavioral scientists have made an impact in this field, and opportunities for future research. The intention of this primer is to introduce or clarify genomics concepts to social and behavioral scientists, summarize prior research and outline future research directions. The time is ripe for social and behavioral scientists to engage in genomics and make important contributions to improve clinical and community translation of genomic discoveries.

B-Sure: a randomized pilot trial of an interactive web-based decision support aid versus usual care in average-risk breast cancer patients considering contralateral prophylactic mastectomy

Sharon L Manne, Barbara L Smith, Sara Frederick, Anna Mitarotondo, Deborah A Kashy, Laurie J Kirstein

The use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) is increasing among breast cancer patients who are at average or “sporadic” risk for contralateral breast cancer. Because CPM provides no survival benefit for these patients, it is not medically recommended for them. Decision support aids may facilitate more informed, higher quality CPM decision. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of B-Sure, an online decision support aid to facilitate informed decisions regarding CPM, and to compare the impact of B-Sure in increasing CPM knowledge, reducing decisional conflict, and increasing preparedness to make the CPM decision among breast cancer patients at sporadic risk who are considering CPM. Ninety-three patients with unilateral, nonhereditary breast cancer considering CPM completed a baseline survey, were randomized to receive B-Sure or Usual care, and completed a 4-week follow-up survey assessing decisional conflict, preparedness to make the CPM decision, and CPM knowledge as well as self-efficacy, perceived risk, worry, CPM motivations, and the surgical decision. Study participation was high. B-Sure was viewed by almost 80% of the participants and was evaluated positively. At follow-up, patients assigned to B-Sure reported significantly higher clarity regarding the personal values relevant to the CPM decision and higher knowledge about CPM. B-Sure had smaller effects on other aspects of decisional conflict. B-Sure improved CPM knowledge and reduced decisional conflict. Patients considering CPM may benefit from an online decision support aid, but may be sensitive to approaches that they perceive as biased against CPM.

Do different factors predict the adoption and maintenance of healthy sleep behaviors? A reasoned action approach

Paul Branscum, Katie Qualls Fay, Valerie Senkowski

Sleep deprivation is a serious public health concern in the United States that often goes unnoticed, particularly among college students and young adults. Concerted efforts are needed to help those who are not engaging in healthy sleep behaviors, while also helping those who are already maintaining healthy sleep behaviors. The purpose of the study was to evaluate theory-based determinants of intentions toward healthy sleep behaviors among students currently not sleeping 7–9 hr per night, oriented toward initiating the behavior (to start sleeping 7–9 hr per night in the next 30 days; behavioral adoption), and students currently sleeping 7–9 hr per night, oriented toward maintaining the behavior (sleeping 7–9 hr per night for the next 6 months; behavioral maintenance). The theoretical framework for this study was the reasoned action approach (RAA). A valid and reliable survey was distributed online to university students (adopters = 310, maintainers = 300). Regression analyses revealed which latent constructs predicted variance of intentions, using a three-construct and a six-construct model. For the adoption group, attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) accounted for 29.3% of the variance of intentions, and perceived norms and PBC accounted for 32.6% of the variance of intentions for the maintenance group. Furthermore, PBC, stemming from capacity (self-efficacy), was found to have the strongest influence on intentions for both groups. Results from this study support the use of the RAA as a model for designing future sleep interventions. Implications and recommendations for future research and practice are presented.