Outlook: Newsletter of the Society of Behavorial Medicine
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New Articles from Annals of Behavioral Medicine and Translational Behavioral Medicine

SBM's two journals, Annals of Behavioral Medicine and Translational Behavioral Medicine: Practice, Policy, Research (TBM), continuously publish online articles, many of which become available before issues are printed. Three recently published Annals and TBM online articles are listed below.

SBM members who have paid their 2015 membership dues are able to access the full text of all Annals and TBM online articles via the SBM website by following the steps below.

  1. Go to the Members Only section of the SBM website (http://www.sbm.org/membership/members).
  2. Log in with your username and password.
  3. Click on the Journals link (listed third in the list of member benefits).
  4. Click on the title of the journal which you would like to electronically access.

To check if you are a current SBM member, or if you are having trouble accessing the journals online, please contact the SBM national office at info@sbm.org or (414) 918-3156.

Annals of Behavioral Medicine

Re-examining the Contributions of Faith, Meaning, and Peace to Quality of Life: a Report from the American Cancer Society’s Studies of Cancer Survivors-II (SCS-II)
Authors: Andrea L. Canada , Patricia E. Murphy, George Fitchett, Kevin Stein
Abstract: Prior research on spirituality in cancer survivors has often failed to distinguish the specific contributions of faith, meaning, and peace, dimensions of spiritual well-being, to quality of life (QoL), and has misinterpreted mediation analyses with these indices. We hypothesized a model in which faith would have a significant indirect effect on survivors’ functional QoL, mediated through meaning and/or peace. Data were from the American Cancer Society’s Study of Cancer Survivors-II (N = 8405). Mediation analyses were conducted with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Spiritual Well-being Scale (FACIT-Sp) predicting the mental component summary (i.e., mental functioning) as well as the physical component summary (i.e., physical functioning) of the SF-36. The indirect effect of faith through meaning on mental functioning, 0.4303 (95 % CI, 0.3988, 0.4649), and the indirect effect of faith through meaning and peace on physical functioning, 0.1769 (95 % CI, 0.1505, 0.2045), were significant. The study findings suggest that faith makes a significant contribution to cancer survivors’ functional QoL. Should future longitudinal research replicate these findings, investigators may need to reconsider the role of faith in oncology QoL studies.

Longitudinal Care Improves Cessation in Smokers Who Do Not Initially Respond to Treatment by Increasing Cessation Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Readiness to Quit: A Mediated Moderation Analysis
Authors: Rachel J. Burns , Alexander J. Rothman, Steven S. Fu, Bruce Lindgren, David M. Vock, Anne M. Joseph
Abstract: The Tobacco Longitudinal Care study was a randomized controlled trial for smoking cessation. It demonstrated that longitudinal care for smoking cessation, in which telephone-based counseling and nicotine replacement therapy were offered for 12 months, was more effective than the standard 8-week treatment. This study aims to identify for whom and how longitudinal care increased the likelihood of abstinence. Mediated moderation analyses were utilized across three time points. There was a trend towards smokers who did not respond to treatment (i.e., were still smoking) by 21 days being more likely to be abstinent at 6 months if they received longitudinal care rather than usual care. Similarly, those who did not respond to treatment by 3 months were more likely to be abstinent at 12 months if they received longitudinal care. At both time points, the likelihood of abstinence did not differ across treatment conditions among participants who responded to treatment (i.e., quit smoking). The effect on 6-month outcomes was mediated by satisfaction and readiness to quit. Cessation self-efficacy, satisfaction, and readiness to quit mediated the effect on 12-month outcomes. The effect of treatment condition on the likelihood of abstinence at 18 months was not moderated by response to treatment at 6 months. Smokers who did not respond to initial treatment benefited from longitudinal care. Differential effects of treatment condition were not observed among those who responded to early treatment. Conditional assignment to longitudinal care may be useful. Determining for whom and how interventions work over time will advance theory and practice.

Theory-Driven Longitudinal Study Exploring Indoor Tanning Initiation in Teens Using a Person-Centered Approach
Authors: Joel Hillhouse, Rob Turrisi, Michael J. Cleveland, Nichole M. Scaglione, Katie Baker, L. Carter Florence
Abstract: Younger indoor tanning initiation leads to greater melanoma risk due to more frequent and persistent behavior. Despite this, there are no published studies exploring the predictors of indoor tanning initiation in teen populations. This longitudinal study uses latent profile analysis to examine indoor tanning initiation in indoor tanning risk subgroups from a national sample of female adolescents. Latent profile analysis used indoor tanning beliefs and perceptions to identify indoor tanning initiation risk subgroups. The teens in each subgroup were reassessed on indoor tanning initiation after a year. Three subgroups were identified: a low risk, anti-tanning subgroup (18.6 %) characterized by low scores on positive indoor tanning belief scales and high scores on beliefs about indoor tanning dangers; a moderate risk aware social tanner subgroup (47.2 %) characterized by high scores on positive indoor tanning belief scales but also high scores on beliefs about indoor tanning dangers; and a high risk risky relaxation tanner subgroup (34.2 %) characterized by high scores on positive indoor tanning belief scales and low scores on beliefs about indoor tanning dangers. Teens in the aware social tanner and risky relaxation tanner subgroups were significantly more likely to initiate indoor tanning in the following year. These findings highlight the need to identify teens at risk for indoor tanning initiation and develop tailored interventions that will move them to the lowest risk subgroup. Subgroup correlates suggest parent and peer-based interventions may be successful.

Translational Behavioral Medicine

A review of diabetes prevention program translations: use of cultural adaptation and implementation research
Authors: Rachel G. Tabak, Kàimi A. Sinclair, Ana A. Baumann, Susan B. Racette, Anne Sebert Kuhlmann, Michelle D. Johnson-Jennings, Ross C. Brownson
Abstract: The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) has been shown to prevent type 2 diabetes through lifestyle modification. The purpose of this study was to describe the literature on DPP translation, synthesizing studies using cultural adaptation and implementation research. A systematic search was conducted. Original studies evaluating DPP implementation and/or cultural adaptation were included. Data about cultural adaptation, implementation outcomes, and translation strategies was abstracted. A total of 44 were included, of which 15 reported cultural adaptations and 38 explored implementation. Many studies shortened the program length and reported a group format. The most commonly reported cultural adaptation (13 of 15) was with content. At the individual level, the most frequently assessed implementation outcome (n = 30) was adoption. Feasibility was most common (n = 32) at the organization level. The DPP is being tested in a variety of settings and populations, using numerous translational strategies and cultural adaptations. Implementation research that identifies, evaluates, and reports efforts to translate the DPP into practice is crucial.

Intervention leads to improvements in the nutrient profile of snacks served in afterschool programs: a group randomized controlled trial
Authors: Michael W. Beets, Brie Turner-McGrievy, R. Glenn Weaver, Jennifer Huberty, Justin B. Moore, Dianne S. Ward, Darcy A. Freedman
Abstract: Widely adopted nutrition policies for afterschool programs (ASPs) focus on serving a fruit/vegetable daily and eliminating sugar-sweetened foods/beverages. The impact of these policies on the nutrient profile of snacks served is unclear. Evaluate changes in macro/micronutrient content of snacks served in ASPs. A 1-year group randomized controlled trial was conducted in 20 ASPs serving over 1700 elementary-age children. Intervention ASPs received a multistep adaptive framework intervention. Direct observation of snack served was collected and nutrient information determined using the USDA Nutrient Database, standardized to nutrients/100 kcal. By post-assessment, intervention ASPs reduced total kcal/snack served by 66 kcal (95CI −114 to −19 kcal) compared to control ASPs. Total fiber (+1.7 g/100 kcal), protein (+1.4 g/100 kcal), polyunsaturated fat (+1.2 g/100 kcal), phosphorous (+49.0 mg/100 kcal), potassium (+201.8 mg/100 kcal), and vitamin K (+21.5 μg/100 kcal) increased in intervention ASPs, while added sugars decreased (−5.0 g/100 kcal). Nutrition policies can lead to modest daily caloric reductions and improve select macro/micronutrients in snacks served. Long-term, these nutritional changes may contribute to healthy dietary habits.

Development and design of an intervention to improve physical activity in pregnant women using Text4baby
Authors: Jennifer Huberty, Lacey Rowedder, Eric Hekler, Marc Adams, Emily Hanigan, Darya McClain, Mary Balluff, Matt Buman, Jessica Bushar
Abstract: Text4baby is a free, mobile health information service for pregnant and post-partum women. This study aims to understand preferences of physical activity text messages (SMS), sequentially develop prototype SMS, and determine preferred dose of SMS to inform a future study utilizing Text4baby. This study had a user-centered design with three phases: (1) literature review and interviews with pregnant women for development of prototype SMS, (2) interviews with health care professionals and pregnant women for prototype SMS feedback, and (3) survey to determine preferred dose of SMS. Data from interviews identified knowledge and support as major themes. Prototypes were developed (N = 14) and informed 168 SMS. Pregnant women (N = 326) thought three SMS/week were about right (50.2 %) and preferred three SMS/week throughout pregnancy (71.9 %). There is a need for opportunities for behavioral scientists to incorporate evidence-based practices within scalable interventions. As such, this research will inform utilization of Text4baby to potentially improve physical activity participation.

 

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