Outlook: Newsletter of the Society of Behavorial Medicine
Spring/Summer 2013 Return to Outlook Main page »

Newest Articles from Annals of Behavioral Medicine and Translational Behavioral Medicine

SBM's two journals, Annals of Behavioral Medicine and Translational Behavioral Medicine: Practice, Policy, Research (TBM), continuously publish articles online, many of which become available before issues are printed.

SBM members who have paid their 2013 membership dues are able to access the full text of all Annals and TBM articles via the SBM website by following the steps below.

  1. Go to the Members Only section of the SBM website: http://www.sbm.org/membership/members
  2. Log in with your username and password
  3. Click on the Journals link (listed fourth in the list of Member Benefits)
  4. Click on the title of the journal which you would like to electronically access

To check if you are a current member of SBM, or if you are having trouble accessing the journals online, please contact the national office at info@sbm.org or 414-918-3156.

The three most recently published Annals and TBM articles online are listed below.

Annals of Behavioral Medicine

Moderating Effect of Socioeconomic Status on the Relationship between Health Cognitions and Behaviors

Authors: Mark Conner BSc, PhD, Rosemary McEachan BSc, PhD, Cath Jackson BSc, PhD, Brian McMillan BSc, PhD, MD, Mike Woolridge BSc, DPhil, Rebecca Lawton BA, PhD

Abstract: Background: There is an established link between socioeconomic status (SES) and performance of health behaviors with more health protective and fewer health-risking behaviors in higher SES groups.

Purpose: This research is novel in testing the moderating effect of SES on the relationship among intention, self-efficacy, and subsequent behavior.

Methods: Effects were tested on data from three prospective correlational studies examining smoking initiation in adolescents (N = 826), breastfeeding in primiparous women (N = 202), and physical activity in working adults (N = 509).

Results: Despite examining different behaviors, samples, time intervals, and measures of SES, each study showed significant interactions between intention and SES in predicting behavior. In all three tests, the intention–behavior relationship was attenuated among individuals from lower SES groups. No moderation effects of SES were found for self-efficacy.

Conclusions: The intention–health behavior relationship can be attenuated in lower SES samples. This finding may contribute to our understanding of SES differences in health behaviors.

The Influence of Perceived Stress on the Onset of Arthritis in Women: Findings from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

Authors: Melissa L. Harris B.A., Deborah Loxton Ph.D, David W. Sibbritt Ph.D, and Julie E. Byles Ph.D

Abstract: Background: Psychosocial factors are considered as risk factors for some chronic diseases. A paucity of research exists surrounding the role of perceived stress in arthritis onset.

Purpose: Perceived stress as a risk factor for arthritis development was explored in an ageing cohort of Australian women.

Methods: This study focused on 12,202 women from the 1946–1951 cohort who completed the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health surveys in 2001, 2004 and 2007. Longitudinal associations were modelled, with and without a time lag.

Results: Findings from the multivariate time lag modelling, excluding women with persistent joint pain, revealed that perceived stress predicted the onset of arthritis, with women experiencing minimal and moderate/high stress levels having a 1.7 and 2.4 times greater odds of developing arthritis 3 years later, respectively (p’s < 0.001).

Conclusion: Chronically perceiving life as stressful is detrimental to future health. The findings provide support for perceived stress to be considered alongside other modifiable risk factors.

Does Exposure to Stressors Predict Changes in Physiological Dysregulation?

Authors:  Dana A. Glei Ph.D., Noreen Goldman D.Sc., Chih-Hsun Wu Ph.D., and Maxine Weinstein Ph.D.

Abstract: Background: The allostatic load framework implies that cumulative exposure to stressors results in multi-system physiological dysregulation.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of stress burden on subsequent changes (2000–2006) in physiological dysregulation.

Methods: Data came from a population-based cohort study in Taiwan (n = 521, aged 54+ in 2000, re-examined in 2006). Measures of stressful events and chronic strain were based on questions asked in 1996, 1999, and 2000. A measure of trauma was based on exposure to the 1999 earthquake. Dysregulation was based on 17 biomarkers (e.g., metabolic, inflammatory, neuroendocrine).

Results: There were some small effects among men: chronic strain was associated with subsequent increases in dysregulation (standardized β = 0.08, 95 % CI = 0.01 to 0.20), particularly inflammation; life events were also associated with increased inflammation (β = 0.10, CI = 0.01 to 0.26). There were no significant effects in women.

Conclusions: We found weak evidence that stress burden is associated with changes in dysregulation.

Translational Behavioral Medicine

Design and evaluation of theory-informed technology to augment a wellness motivation intervention

Authors: Siobhan McMahon MPH, PhD, GNP-BC, Mithra Vankipuram PhD, Eric B Hekler PhD, and Julie Fleury PhD, FAAN

Abstract: Integrating mobile technology into health promotion strategies has the potential to support healthy behaviors. A new theory-informed app was designed to augment an intervention promoting wellness motivation in older adults with fall risk and low levels of physical activity. The app content was evaluated for clarity, homogeneity, and validity of motivational messages; both the app and device were evaluated for acceptability and usability. The initial evaluation included nine adults (mean age, 75); four of whom also assessed the app’s sensing abilities in the field. As part of an intervention feasibility study, 14 older adults (mean age, 84) also provided a follow-up evaluation of app usability. Evaluation participants assessed the app as valid, usable, acceptable, and able to sense most reported free-living activities, and provided feedback for improving the app. Design processes illustrate methodologic and interpretive efforts to operationalize motivational content in a theory-informed app promoting change in physical activity behavior.

School factors as barriers to and facilitators of a preventive intervention for pediatric type 2 diabetes

Authors: William J. Hall MSW, Margaret Schneider PhD, Deborah Thompson PhD, Stella L. Volpe PhD, Allan Steckler DrPH, John M. Hall BS, and M. Randall Fisher BS, RN

Abstract: School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a cluster-randomized trial of a multicomponent intervention implemented in 21 schools. Interview data were analyzed to identify barriers and facilitators. Barriers included teacher frustration that intervention activities detracted from tested subjects, student resistance and misbehavior, classroom management problems, communication equipment problems, lack of teacher/staff engagement, high cost and limited availability of nutritious products, inadequate facility space, and large class sizes. Facilitators included teacher/staff engagement, effective classroom management, student engagement, schools with direct control over food service, support from school leaders, and adequate facilities and equipment. Contextual barriers and facilitators must be taken into account in the design and implementation of school-based health interventions.

A systematic review of eHealth cancer prevention and control interventions: new technology, same methods and designs?

Authors: Michael A Sanchez MPH, CHES, Borsika A Rabin MPH, PhD, Bridget Gaglio PhD, MPH, Michelle Henton MA, M Khair Elzarrad PhD, MPH, Peyton Purcell MPH, CPH, and Russell E Glasgow PhD

Abstract: There has been a recent surge of eHealth programs in cancer and other content areas, but few reviews have focused on the methodologies and designs employed in these studies. We conducted a systematic review of studies on eHealth interventions on cancer prevention and control published between 2001 and 2010 applying the Pragmatic Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS) criteria and external validity components from the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. We identified 113 studies that focused on cancer prevention and control of eHealth interventions. Most studies fell midway along the explanatory/pragmatic trial continuum, but few reported on various practical feasibility criteria for translation. Despite vast interest in cancer eHealth and the applied nature of this field, few studies considered key external validity issues. There is a need for use of alternative pragmatic study designs and transparent reporting of external validity components to produce more rapid and generalizable results.